Audiovisual counterpoint (pp 35-37): the horizontal dimension of two tracks (sound and image) in relation to one another, free of redundancy, where sound and image constitute two parallel and loosely connected tracks, neither dependent on the other. Chion argues that audiovisual counterpoint will be noticed only “if it sets up an opposition between sound and image on a precise point of meaning.”
Audiovisual harmony (pp 35-40): the vertical dimension of two tracks (sound and image) in relation to one another at the same moment forming chords or resonances; Chion argues that “harmonic and vertical relations (whether they be consonant, dissonant, or neither, à la Debussy) are generally more salient – i.e., the relations between a given sound and what is happening at that moment in the image.”
Dissonant harmony (p 37): Audiovisual moments which “point to a momentary discord between the image’s and sound’s figural natures.” Chion argues that “many cases being offered up as models of counterpoint were actually splendid examples of dissonant harmony.”
Shot (p 41): the length of film between two splices; a specific unit of cinema based on the fact of film editing construction. A neutral object, objectively defined, which everyone can agree on as a unit of measurement.
Sound Slice (p 43): a particular sound event occurring in a soundtrack, whether inaudibly mixed or abruptly demarcated.
Internal Logic of audiovisual flow (p 46): a mode of connecting images and sounds that appears to follow a flexible, organic process of development, variation, and growth, born out of the narrative situation itself and the feelings it inspires. Internal logic tends toward continuous and progressive modifications in the sonic flow, and makes use of sudden breaks only when the narrative so requires.
External Logic of audiovisual flow (p 46): a mode of connecting images and sounds which brings out effects of discontinuity and rupture as interventions external to the represented content: editing that disrupts the continuity of an image or a sound, breaks, interruptions, sudden changes of tempo, and so on.
Elements of Auditory Setting, or E.A.S. (pp 54-55): sounds with a more or less punctual source, which appear more or less intermittently and which help to create and define a film’s space by means of specific, distinct small touches. Typical sounds of the auditory setting are the faraway barking of a dog, or the ringing of a phone in the office next door, or a police car siren. The E.A.S. inhabits and defines a space, unlike a “permanent” sound such as the noise of ocean surf. The E.A.S. can also have a punctuative role, thanks to editing, helping to create the scene’s overall rhythm, thus renewing and transfiguring its functions completely.
Point of Synchronization, or Synch Point (pp 58-62): a salient moment of an audiovisual sequence during which a sound event and a visual event meet in synchrony. It is a point where the effect of synchresis is particularly prominent, rather like an accented chord in music.
Temporal Elasticity (pp 61-62): the use of slow motion and other radical stylizations of time. Temporal elasticity is most possible when it surrounds strong synch points such as blows or explosions, and is often used in action, war, and martial arts films.
Synchresis (pp 63-65): a word forged by combining synchronism and synthesis; the spontaneous and irresistable weld produced between a particular auditory phenomenon and visual phenomenon when they occur at the same time. This join results independently of any rational logic. Synchresis is what makes dubbing, postsynchronization, and sound effects mixing possible, and enables such a wide array of choice in these processes… Certain experimental videos and films demonstrate that synchresis can even work out of thing air – that is, with images and sounds that strictly speaking have nothing to do with each other, forming monstrous yet inevitable and irresistible agglomerations in our perception… But it is not totally automatic. Synchresis can happen as a result of dynamics, rhythm, and other physical attributes of the link, as well as through culturally determined meaning.
CHAPTER THREE FILMS
First Name Carmen metro scene with sounds of seagulls (Jean-Luc Godard)
L’Homme qui ment audiovisual dissonance (Robbe-Grillet)
Enthusiasm moments of audible sound editing (Dziga Vertov)
Hail Mary beginning slices of sound (Jean-Luc Godard)
American Graffiti use of recording technique as spatiality (George Lucas)
M. Hulot’s Holiday (Jacques Tati)
Earrings of Madame de internal logic (Max (?) Ophuls)
La Dolce Vita internal logic (XXXX Fellini)
Children of a Lesser God internal logic (Randa Haines)
Alien external logic (Ridley Scott)
M. external logic (Fritz Lang)
Nouvelle Vague external logic (Jean-Luc Godard)
The Goalie’s Anxiety at the Penalty Kick external logic (Wim Wenders)
The Informer (John Ford, music by Max Steiner)
Letter to Freddy Buache - deferred anticipation (Jean-Luc Godard)
Children of a Lesser God - two characters joining with silence (Randa Haines)
Band of Outsiders - silent film leader (Jean-Luc Godard)
Alien - silence on closeup of cat (Ridley Scott)
Face to Face - ticking as she gets ready for bed (Ingmar Bergman)
Dragon Ball series - temporal elasticity
Raging Bull - temporal elasticity (Martin Scorcese)
The WIld Bunch - temporal elasticity (Sam Peckinpah, inspired by Akira Kurosawa’s The Seven Samurai